Science has long known that TB-500 (Thymosin Beta 4) can promote wound healing, particularly in bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. TB-500 has been recently investigated, in animal test subjects, for use in tissue repair. Several of the new animal studies have indicated improved healing of teeth and gum tissue. TB-500 may, in fact, turn out to be the first link in a chain of knowledge that will make it possible to regrow teeth … maybe even in the near future.
Early TB-500 Findings
Early scientific animal studies with Thymosin Beta 4 has indicated that the protein plays an active role in tissue healing. It appears to be particularly active in bone, skin, corneal (eye), and cardiac tissue. The molecule is known to reduce levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines while simultaneously promoting the movement of healing cells to the site of injury, increasing blood vessel formation, and accelerating stem cell maturation . The impact of TB-500 on stem cells led scientists to investigate how the peptide affects bone and tooth formation.
It turns out that TB-500 is closely involved in the initiation and development of tooth germ, the stem cells that eventually become teeth. In vitro studies (cells in a petri dish) have revealed that TB-500 upregulates expression of odontogenic (tooth building) genes like RUNX2, Amlex, Ambn, and Enam . In other words, it exerts an effect on several different genetic processes related to the development of teeth.
Even more recent work has found that TB-500 and similar peptides not only active tooth-building genes, but also activate the cells that aid in calcification and mineralization of teeth. Studies in mice and rats have shown that TB-500 can also induce healing after tooth extraction, promoting bone growth and providing a more suitable substrate for dental implantation- .
The Near and Distant Future
In the near future, TB-500 (Thymosin Beta 4) may play an active role in promoting tooth health, encouraging healing after cavity repair, and in preparing bone and gum structure for implantation of artificial teeth. In the slightly more distant future, scientists expect that TB-500 and other synthetic peptides may allow us to simply regrow teeth after they are damaged, making it the first in a line of synthetic peptides that will make implants, dentures, crowns, and even fillings completely irrelevant.
 D. Philp and H. K. Kleinman, “Animal studies with thymosin beta, a multifunctional tissue repair and regeneration peptide,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 1194, pp. 81-86, Apr. 2010.
 T. Kiyoshima, H. Fujiwara, K. Nagata, H. Wada, Y. F. Ookuma, M. Shiotsuka, M. Kihara, K. Hasegawa, H. Someya, and H. Sakai, “Induction of dental epithelial cell differentiation marker gene expression in non-odontogenic human keratinocytes by transfection with thymosin beta 4,” Stem Cell Res., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 309-322, Jan. 2014.
 H. Someya, H. Fujiwara, K. Nagata, H. Wada, K. Hasegawa, Y. Mikami, A. Jinno, H. Sakai, K. Koyano, and T. Kiyoshima, “Thymosin beta 4 is associated with RUNX2 expression through the Smad and Akt signaling pathways in mouse dental epithelial cells,” Int. J. Mol. Med., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1169-1178, May 2015.
 S.-I. Lee, D.-S. Kim, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Cha, and E.-C. Kim, “The role of thymosin beta 4 on odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells,” PloS One, vol. 8, no. 4, p. e61960, 2013.
 S.-I. Lee, D.-W. Lee, H.-M. Yun, H.-J. Cha, C.-H. Bae, E.-S. Cho, and E.-C. Kim, “Expression of thymosin beta-4 in human periodontal ligament cells and mouse periodontal tissue and its role in osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation,” Differ. Res. Biol. Divers., Sep. 2015.